Preiddeu Annwn

Preiddeu Annwn is an old middle-Welsh poem, attributed to the Bard Taliesin, that dates back (in written form) to the 9th century. It was originally included in the Book of Taliesin. Like all Celtic literature of this time, it is based on a much older oral tradition, gradually finding its way to written form.

Preiddeu Annwn — prounounced PRY-thee AHN-oon — translates as “the treasures of the Underworld.”

This poem is significant for many reasons. One of them is that it seems to be an early prototype of the Arthurian Grail Quest. It contains the refrain “Except seven, none returned,” despite the fact that the quest began with three ships (Prydwen, Arthur’s ship) full of men. The later Grail legends focused on the cup, only the water symbol. This early poem contains all 4 Hallows for each of the four elements, retrieved by Quest from the underworld.

There are a few translations (my favorite is the one by Caitlin and John Matthews) of this poem available, but I didn’t find any of them satisfying. Some of the translations better convey the meaning of the poem, but lose the gorgeous rhyme & rhythm of the Welsh. It’s stunning to hear:

As a result, I compiled my own version in English. I don’t read or speak Welsh so I can’t say this is my own translation. I do not vouch for anything remotely like accurate Welsh scholarship here — I did this merely for fun, as a creative exercise, to create something with some rhyme & rhythm in English, that might convey some of the original meaning.

With that said, here is my version of the poem, with the original Welsh on the left, and lots of creative license in my English rendering on the right.

Preiddeu Annwn

The Treasures of the Underworld


1. Golychaf wledic
pendeuic gwlat ri.

1. Hail!

2. [r]y ledas ypennaeth
dros traeth mundi.

2. Sovereignty!

3. bu kyweir
karchar gweir
ygkaer sidi.

3. Gweir’s prison was prepared in Caer Sidi,
the Fortress of the Mound

4. trwy ebostol pwyll

4. in the manner of Pwyll and Pryderi.

5. Neb kyn noc ef
nyt aeth idi.

5. None before Gweir went down,

6. yr gadwyn trom las
kywirwas ae ketwi.

6. into the heavy blue/gray chains
that bound the loyal youth.

7. Arac preideu annwfyn
tost yt geni.

7. And before the spoils of Annwn
he sang his bitter sound.

8. Ac yt urawt

8. Forevermore,
The bards will speak this Truth.

9. Tri lloneit prytwen
yd aetham ni idi.

9. Three shiploads of Prydwen’s men
sailed to Annwn

10. nam seith
ny dyrreith
ogaer sidi.

10. Except seven
none returned from Caer Sidi,
the Fortress of the Mound.


11. Neut wyf glot geinmyn
cerd ochlywir.

11. The bard’s song sounded

12. ygkaer pedryuan
pedyr ychwelyt.
12. in the Four-Peaked Caer Pedyrvan,
forever turning.
13. yg kenneir
or peir
pan leferit.
13. And of its cauldron
was my first song sung
14. Oanadyl naw morwyn
14. Nine maidens kindled the cauldron
breathing it to life
15. Neu peir pen annwfyn
pwy y vynut.
15. What is the nature of
Lord Annwn’s cauldron?
16. gwrym am yoror
16. Enameled iridescence
and pearly white its rim.
17. Ny beirw bwyt llwfyr
ny rytyghit.
17. It will not cook a coward’s food;
its destiny sings a nobler hymn.
18. cledyf lluch lleawc
idaw rydyrchit.
18. The flashing sword of Lleawg
was thust into it.
19. Ac yn llaw leminawc
yd edewit.
19. And left in Lleminawc’s hand
20. Arac drws porth vffern
llugyrn lloscit.
20. Before the door of Hell
lamps burned grand.
21. Aphan aetham ni gan arthur
trafferth lechrit
21. And when we went with Arthur,
We struggled with The Great Work.
22. namyn seith
ny dyrreith
o gaer vedwit.

22. Except seven
none returned from Caer Vedwyd
Fortress of the Mead-Feast.


23. Neut wyf glot geinmyn
kerd glywanawr.

23. I Taliesin, first Herald of Glory;
my song sounded

24. ygkaer pedryfan
ynys pybyrdor

24. In Caer Rigor, the Fortress of Hardness
On the island Gate.
25. echwyd amuchyd
25. Where night and day
are one.
26. gwin gloyw eugwirawt
rac eu gorgord.
26. Bright wine was set
before the gathering.
27. Tri lloneit prytwen
yd aetham ni ar vor.
27. Three shiploads of Prydwen’s men,
we furrowed the flood.
28. namyn seith
ny dyrreith
ogaer rigor.

28. Except seven
none returned from Caer Rigor,
The Fortress of Hardness.


29. Ny obrynafi lawyr
llen llywyadur

29. I merit more than scholars
mere scribes and clerks

30. tra chaer wydyr ny welsynt
wrhyt arthur.

30. Who know not Arthur’s valor
Beyond Caer Wydyr
the Glass Fortress

31. Tri vgeint canhwr
aseui ar y mur.

31. Six thousand men
stood high upon its wall.

32. oed anhawd
ymadrawd aegwylyadur

32. It was difficult
to speak with their watchman.

33. tri lloneit prytwen
yd aeth gan arthur.

33. Three shiploads of Prydwen’s men
went with Arthur.

34. namyn seith
ny dyrreith
ogaer golud.

34. Except seven
none returned from Caer Golud
the Occult Fortress.


35. Ny obrynaf y lawyr
llaes eu kylchwy

35. I merit more than cowards,
their shields hanging limp.
36. ny wdant wy pydyd
peridyd pwy.
36. They know not which day
or who was created
37. py awr ymeindyd
y ganet cwy.
37. or what hour
Cwy was born.
38. Pwy gwnaeth
arnyt aeth
doleu defwy.
38. Who made him
who did not go
(to the) meadows of Defwy, the Court of Heaven?
39. ny wdant wy yrych brych
bras y penrwy.
39. They know not the starry ox,
40. Seith vgein kygwng
yny aerwy.
40. Seven-score links
in its fastening.
41. Aphan aetham ni gan arthur
auyrdwl gofwy.
41. And when we went with Arthur,
a sorrowed journey,
42. namyn seith
ny dyrreith
o gaer vandwy.

42. Except seven
none returned from Caer Vandwy,
the Fortress of God’s Peak.


43. Ny obrynafy lawyr
llaes eu gohen.

43. I merit more than weak clerics,
their wills gone slack.
44. ny wdant pydyd
peridyd pen.
44. Who do not know which day
our king was made,
45. Py awr ymeindyd
y ganet perchen.
45. what hour
he was born,

46. Py vil agatwant
aryant ypen.

46. nor of the silver-headed beast
they guard for him.
47. Pan aetham ni gan arthur
afyrdwl gynhen.
47. When we went with Arthur,
a sorrowed journey,
48. namyn seith
ny dyrreith
o gaer ochren.
48. Except seven
none returned from Caer Achren
the Fortress of Enclosedness.


49. Myneich dychnut
val cunin cor.

49. Monks throng together
like a pack of dogs
50. o gyfranc udyd
ae gwidanhor.
50. After an encounter with the wise
who know
51. Ae vn hynt gwynt
ae vn dwfyr mor.
51. whether the wind blows on one path?
whether the sea is one mass of water?
52. Ae vn vfel tan
twrwf diachor.
52. whether a single spark
will tinder a fierce fire?


53. Myneych dychnut
val bleidawr.
53. Monks throng together
like a pack of dogs
54. o gyfranc udyd
ae gwidyanhawr.
54. After an encounter with the wise
who know
55. ny wdant pan yscar
deweint agwawr.
55. When midnight
and dawn divide
56. neu wynt pwy hynt
pwy yrynnawd.
56. Where the wind wanders
until its current subsides
57. py va diua
py tir aplawd.
57. what sea it ravages,
what land it strikes.
58. bet sant
yn diuant
abet allawr.
58. How many ancestors
in the ground abide.
59. Golychaf y wledic
pendefic mawr.
59. Hail!
60. na bwyf trist
crist am gwadawl.
60. Sovereignty!